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Copper Silver Ionization


Copper Silver Ionization Solutions for Legionella Protection.

Powerful. Innovative. Reliable.

CSIDefender® copper silver ionization technologies have been proven in over 8,500 installations worldwide over the last 20 years to prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria in facility potable water systems. The automated computer control system disperses industry proven copper and silver ion concentrations into the water distribution system to saturate the biofilm where Legionella bacteria grows and helps prevent potential expose risk for facility occupants. Legionella is a type of bacterium responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of preventable pneumonia. Commercial and medical size Copper-Silver Ionization technology is recognized by the EPA, CDC, WHO and many other public health authorities around the world. The technology is commonly specified by consultant engineers in both new construction projects or for retrofits in existing facilities. Copper-silver ionization has shown to decreases the risks of Legionella exposure in facility potable water distribution networks for well over 20 years.

How does CSI technology work? Copper-silver ionization disperses minute levels of positively charged copper and silver ions into the water system. The ions bond electrostatically with negative sites on bacterial cell walls and denature proteins. Over the long term, the presence of copper and silver ions destroy biofilms and slimes that can harbor Legionella, the bacteria responsible for Legionnaires’ disease (legionellosis). It typically takes 2-4 weeks for the copper and silver ions to penetrate a biofilm. Replacing shock chlorination or other alternatives with copper-silver ionization to keep water safe is in many cases installed because it is more convenient and cost-effective than other approaches.

Copper Silver Ionization Cells by CSIDefender® provide better performance through superior engineering design. 100% Made in North America, these industry leading CSI Chamber Cells include eight “Certified Pure” ionization electrodes. They also feature unique internal laminar flow engineering that eliminates premature electrode erosion combined with commercial grade electrical connectivity protection all housed in a cut grooved Schedule 40 (316) stainless steel external jacket. Unlike PVC and CPVC, the stainless steel jacket meets all fire and plumbing building codes. It also provides superior tolerance levels in any liquid potable water temperatures or pressures. Combined with the industry  leading CSIDefender® controllers, and with less that 3PSI drop in pressure, these robust military grade Copper Silver Ionization (CSI) chamber cells are the best engineered solutions on the market today.

Copper Silver Ionization Controllers by CSIDefender® are the power and brains behind your Legionella growth prevention solution. These innovative CSI controllers are software-based. They are also fully automated to anticipate and react to various water conditions without the need for human intervention. Powerful and smart enough to handle multiple copper-silver ionization cells, CSIDefender® Controllers reduce your technology footprint and cost without sacrificing on performance or reliability. With 46 models available, there’s a CSIDefender® Controller available for your facility. If you want the best in the industry for your potable water distribution network, look no further than CSIDefender®

CSIDefender® Quick Facts

CSIDefender® technologies are the only Legionella Control solutions that offer:
True independent Multi-Cell Ionization Controllers
Scalable solutions with up to 160 amps output capacity for any potable water loads
Multi DHW Zone capabilities for up to 60% cost savings and smaller footprint

Safe & Reliable for Facilities of Any Size, Copper Silver Ionization technologies:

Always work when properly sized & calibrated
Always work when regular preventative maintenance is conducted
Always work when depleted Ion Chamber Cells are replaced

Comparing Legionella Control Technologies

Copper Silver Ionization (CSI) technologies provide a number of advantages over traditional water treatment options such as thermal eradication or chemical treatments. By generating positively charged copper (Cu ) and silver (Ag ) ions, CSIDefender® prevents legionella bacteria growth and saturates the biofilm where it grows while reducing the relative cost and technology footprint compared to other solutions. The chart below lists the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most common Legionella control and prevention technologies.

CSI Technology Comparison

  • Ideal for facility point of entry (POE) or Domestic How Water (DHW) loop applications
  • 66% more cost-effective compared to short term technologies
  • Biofilm penetration in 30 to 45 days
  • Up to 75% smaller technology footprint
  • No on-site chemical storage
  • Easy to install using standard plumbing components
  • No corrosion
  • No chemicals
  • No chemical by-product monitoring required (Unlike ClO2)
  • Works in any potable water total dissolved solids (TDS)
  • Works with a wide range of pH levels
  • No chemical odours
  • No discoloration
  • Works in any liquid water pressures & temperatures, (Unlike PVC or CPVC)
  • Recognized by: The EPA, CDC, WHO, HSE and many other public health authorities
  • Over 20 years on the market worldwide
  • Not intended for cooling towers
  • pH limit of 8.9 as copper starts to precipitate *contact us with water quality data if you have any concerns
  • More “stable” than Cl2 or ClO2
  • Less THM byproduct formation compared to Cl2
  • Longer residual than Cl2
  • Easy to produce
  • Best pH is 8.3
  • 200X less effective than Cl2
  • Affects dialysis = may cause anemia
  • Limited / No biofilm penetration
  • Limited long-term studies for Legionella
  • Chemical storage (Ammonia & Chlorine)
  • Possible smell of ammonia in water
  • May require periodical switch to Cl2 to prevent biofilm
  • Organic nitrogen competes with ammonia
  • Ammonia overdosing = dichlorimines + nitrogen trichlorides
  • pH determines kind of chloramines (mono, di, tri)
  • Less corrosion than Cl2
  • Better performance than Cl2
  • Better performance than super heat & flush
  • ClO2 Must be generated on site
  • Strong odours
  • Reports of plumbing corrosion & damage issues
  • On-site chemical storage
  • Relatively larger technology footprint
  • Service contracts required
  • Requires up to 17 months for Legionella control
  • ClO2 by-products must be monitored
  • ClO2 decomposes by light and heat
  • Easy to implement
  • Affordable short term Legionella control strategy
  • Comparable results to thermal eradication
  • Can be used in both hot and cold water zones
  • Not discreet to implement
  • Chemical odours
  • Facility potable water shut down and flushing is required
  • No full biofilm saturation
  • No long term Legionella remediation effect
  • Pockets of Cl2 reported in the water pipes causing brown/black water
  • Re-application required every 3 to 5 weeks
  • High labor costs
  • Possible plumbing corrosion
  • Easy to implement
  • Affordable short term Legionella growth control strategy
  • Limited effects on biofilm where Legionella normally grows
  • Effects only last 3 to 5 weeks
  • Flushing required
  • High risk of scalding
  • Reported plumbing feature damage
  • Impractical for cold water pipes
  • High labor costs
  • Treats 100% flowing water
  • No corrosion
  • No by-products
  • Affordable
  • Easy to Install
  • No effect on biofilm where Legionella normally grows
  • Pre-filtration required
  • Lights must be kept clean to work
  • Not considered a systemic Legionella growth control technology
  • Engineered for swimming pools, fountains, and spas
  • Great for home use
  • Easy to buy
  • Easy to install
  • Low cost
  • Good algae control in pools
  • Known to fail within weeks in potable water applications
  • Not engineered for large daily potable water usage requirements
  • Not approved for potable water
  • Low flow capacity
  • Low silver content
  • No telemetry
  • Limited automation
  • No BMS interface
  • No automation or adaptability to its environment

Download Brochures:

Copper Silver Ionization DHW (Domestic Hot Water)

Copper Silver Ionization POE (Point-of-Entry)

Understanding Legionalla and Biofilm

CSI Defender Manufacturer Site